Technology Expert Witness Services

  • Our firm has been operating since 1986
  • Our Scientists and Analysts have more than 100 years of collective experience in their respective fields.
  • More than 110 cases in state and federal courts.
  • More than 40 testimonies.
  • Ask us about our 10-figure courtroom victory.

Unlike most expert witness firms, we also create powerful courtroom presentations, including forensically accurate video re-creations of events. We have decades of experience presenting complex information in simple and accessible ways to audiences ranging from local juries of all levels of sophistication to the Pentagon, both Houses of Congress, 35 state and local regulatory bodies, and radio and national TV audiences, including Anderson Cooper 360.

We are proud and honored to serve on the approved Panel of Expert Witnesses for the Superior Court of the County of Los Angeles, California.


We are proud of our affilliations with the these organizations and agencies


Cell Phone



Text Messages

Social Media

Computers and Drives, Including Damaged Drives

Fraud and Data Hacks

Auto and Truck Accidents and Forensics

Security Camera Systems Including Data Recovery From Damaged Devices

Forensic Analysis of Video and Audio Data

Analysis of Photographs and Metadata

Photogrammetry – Measurements Made from Photos and Videos

Forensic Animation Videos: Re-Creating Critical Events Based on Forensic Data


General Aviation

Business Analysis and Valuations


Software Copyrights

Human Terrain Mapping


GLAD YOU ASKED! Computers store a lot of information you don’t see. That information is called “Metadata”, which means “Data about data”. The easiest way to think of metadata is to consider a normal book, with a title page, the name of the author, the publisher, the table of contents, and the chapter and page numbers. Those are all examples of metadata. Only the contents of the book is actually “data”. The metadata helps you understand items about the book, but it’s not the actual book.

In any legal scenario, the metadata can be as valuable – if not more valuable – than the actual data itself. And even the simple process of starting a computer that contains a drive about which there are questions, or of viewing a file, introduces new metadata. If the computer or its drive are evidence, that’s the equivalent of handling a piece of DNA evidence without gloves!

Computer forensic specialists like us and our colleagues create a bit-by-bit copy of the untouched evidence drive by connecting the evidence drive, powered down, to a forensic copying device certified by the FBI, NIST, or the Department of Justice as electronically unable to make changes to the evidence drive. The forensic copier then creates that identical copy on a new, blank drive.

At our lab, we refer to that first copy as a “Golden Master”, borrowing a term from the software industry. We also go one step further. We next make a second forensic copy of the Golden Master forensic copy, which we refer to as a “Working Copy”. We store the Golden Master securely. Its only purpose going forward would be to generate additional Working Copies.

We perform all our analysis on Working Copies.

A “Digital Fingerprint”, also known as a “Checksum” or “Hash”, is a mathematic process that’s akin to magic! It’s a way to tell for certain that a piece of digital evidence has not been tampered with.

Skipping the details, the process is that the investigator simply runs a computer algorithm on a digital evidence item, and the algorithm produces a 32-character string consisting of numbers and letters [technically, a 32-digit hexadecimal number] that is unique to the evidence item but cannot be used to re-create the evidence item itself. So, if you create a hash of, say, Fyodor Dostoyevsky’s War and Peace, and then changed, for example, a comma somewhere to a period, the resulting modified book would produce a hash totally unlike the first one.

Hashes are used all the time in computer forensics to insure the integrity of evidence.

Just as with fingerprints, DNA samples, and other evidence, digital evidence requires a chain of custody to insure the level of integrity demanded by modern legal systems.  Just as each of the types of traditional evidence has its own special rules for evidence handling and chain of custody, so does digital evidence.

Unlike traditional evidence, however, it’s often possible to create exact copies of digital evidence, using hashes to insure fidelity.  It’s also important to keep digital evidence in an organized file system to avoid confusion.

Also, digital evidence can be corrupted simply by viewing it, since file systems generally change the metadata associated with files and devices.  Further, device batteries can die, producing unexpected results when they start up again with new batteries.

Welcome to the wonderful, exciting world of theft of Trade Secrets!  While we are NOT attorneys [and we don’t even play them on television], we work with this stuff all the time, and here are our take-aways.

Of the four classes of intellectual property – Patents, Copyrights, Trademarks, and Trade Secrets – only one, Trade Secrets, carries potential criminal penalties for misappropriation [”theft of Trade Secrets”], although that is extremely rare.  By far the most common form of Trade Secret theft is the theft of customer lists.

Theft of Trade Secret cases generally require financial analysis in order to determine a fair value for recovery, potentially including unjust enrichment as well as other damages.  Our senior staff includes a trained accountant who took a firm public under the rules of the US Securities and Exchange Commission as its CFO.

About Us

Wayne B. Norris

Principal Scientist

Wayne has a broad range of experience in numerous technical and non-technical disciplines.

Wayne has served as an expert witness in more than 110 cases since 1986 in State and Federal courts, including the $1.7 billion Microsoft et al vs Commissioner of Internal Revenue from 1997-99, where he served as the US Government’s chief expert witness in software development.

Robert Ayers

Senior Analyst

Robert Ayers, prior to becoming an Expert Witness and joining Norris-Technologies and Associates, was President and CEO of Golden Reflections, Ayers Automotive Repairs, a premiere automotive services business in Santa Barbara, California for 43 years.

Nikki Ayers

Senior Analyst

Nikki Ayers, prior to joining Norris-Technologies and Associates, was the CFO of Golden Reflections, Ayers Automotive Repairs, a premier automotive services company in Santa Barbara, California for 43 years. Mrs. Ayers managed the operations and HR aspects of the business.